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Migrant fortress South Africa — timing of border post upgrades amid heightened xenophobia concerning

Migrant fortress South Africa — timing of border post upgrades amid heightened xenophobia concerning
People heading to Zimbabwe queue up at Beitbridge border post in Musina, South Africa. (Photo by Gallo Images / Sowetan / Sandile Ndlovu)

Using billions in public funds for private border security could be the latest chapter in government’s xenophobic fixation.

Securing borders against irregular migration has come to dominate global immigration policymaking and spending — driven largely by inaccurate politicised narratives that economic migration is a threat. With that in mind, proposals from a floundering Department of Home Affairs (DHA) to pay billions in public rand to private companies to upgrade the country’s busiest border posts should be queried. 

Read more in Daily Maverick: MPs rip into Motsoaledi over department’s ‘sins’ – long queues, offline systems and shambolic immigration services

South Africa can indeed benefit from improved technology and efficiency at border crossings that enable the speedy movement of people and goods. But DHA has a worrying pattern of disproportionately targeting economic migrants from neighbouring countries. If the primary motivation of its latest initiative is to clamp down on irregular African migrants, the move will endanger the lives of migrants forced to use more risky routes, and could fail to facilitate regional trade and safety. 

Earlier this month, DHA called on companies to tender to redesign and redevelop six posts bordering Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Lesotho, Botswana and Eswatini. Minister Aaron Motsoaledi said the upgrades would build on the 2022 launch of the Border Guards under the Border Management Authority. The guards were intended to make the borders safer, less porous and more efficient for regional trade and people moving legitimately, while curbing the illegal movement of people and goods. 

Tenders for the multibillion-rand public-private partnership close in March 2024. Companies are expected to install innovative technologies such as gamma rays to scan vehicles for illegal goods and people — an upgrade from manually sampling suspicious cars. 

Immigration weaponised

In many global north countries, budgets have steadily risen as immigration has become politicised. The approach has increasingly focused on ‘enforcement’ first, to the detriment of humanitarian concerns or the economic and developmental potential that migrants offer host countries. 

The European Border and Coast Guard Agency is the most expensive of all European Union agencies. Companies providing private immigration services such as guarding, visa processing and detention have boomed and were worth about $48-billion in 2022. Yet even as legal migration pathways shrink, more people are moving globally than ever, driven by the confluence of conflict, poverty and climate change. 

Heavily securitised borders can deter movement to a specific location, but don’t prevent people from moving. They shift migrants to different crossings and drive people to use irregular methods, increasing their risk of death and suffering. Criminal and terrorist enterprises rarely use land crossings, preferring to travel by plane or boat using corruption or other strategies to facilitate their journeys. 

Despite evidence of how harmful and ineffective overly-securitised policies are from a migration management perspective, governments continue using the same approaches focused on keeping migrants out.

Private border guarding

Australia, the United States and Germany have commercialised aspects of border guarding, detention and visa applications. Privatising public services raises questions about transparency, accountability and profiteering. It elevates corruption risks, and the lack of consumer protections calls the system’s integrity into question. Applicants become customers and lose accessibility and accountability with regard to those assessing their cases. 

The argument for privatisation is typically based on greater efficiency or job creation. This has yet to materialise with DHA, which outsourced the administrative aspects of visa processing to VFS Global in 2014, a company headquartered in Zurich and Dubai, which has been accused of corruption multiple times. VFS Global rejects any unfounded allegations of corruption.

South Africa’s visa backlog in March stood at 60,000, leaving many investors, businesses and workers frustrated. The DHA blundered a short-lived plan to process all visas through a centralised adjudication system. After failing to implement an e-Visa, the department outsourced a large portion of the visa processing function to VFS Global. 

Backlogs and privatisation blur the lines between public services and ‘add-on’ or premium profit-making services. Many companies in South Africa offer queue-jumping services at high fees without oversight. Some are scams that produce false documents or pay bribes for expedited services. 

Migration benefits for SA

Most people crossing the country’s busiest land ports are low-skilled Africans from neighbouring countries looking for work. Evidence shows that undocumented migrants help grow the domestic and regional economy, and no evidence links them disproportionately to crime. The DHA’s efforts to problematise these migrants have increased alongside xenophobic rhetoric from politicians and violence against foreigners. 

The 2017 White Paper on International Migration acknowledged that circular migration contained regional development benefits, and that inadequate legal pathways for low-skilled migrants led to irregular migration and asylum system abuse. It proposed regularisation schemes, a Southern African Development Community visa for low-skilled workers, and access to asylum for those in need. These measures, coupled with enforcement, present a holistic, effective and less expensive approach to managing migration. 

Instead, DHA continues to focus on securitisation. Laws restricting access and rights have been enacted, such as the Refugees Amendment Act and Border Management Authority Act. And the steps proposed in the white paper haven’t progressed. 

There is no doubt that South Africa’s overburdened infrastructure, antiquated technologies and corruption at land border posts must be fixed. Nevertheless, paying billions to private companies for land port upgrades at a time when xenophobia is widespread and general elections are just a year away, is concerning. 

As DHA moves forward with its securitised approach, it must show how upgraded border posts have helped tackle transnational crime, trafficking and terrorism, and facilitated cross-border trade and travel. 

Improvements should be complemented with better visa pathways for Africans, eliminating visa backlogs, upholding access and rights for refugees and asylum seekers, streamlining customs and immigration processes, training personnel and cleaning up departmental corruption and mismanagement. DM

Aimée-Noël Mbiyozo, Senior Research Consultant, Migration, Institute for Security Studies (ISS) Pretoria.

First published by ISS Today.


VFS Global would like to address the allegations raised in the article above.

We strongly object to any unfounded allegations of corruption. As part of our international operations, we function as a transparent and accountable organisation deeply committed to ethical business practices and respect the local laws. We continue to act in accordance with the necessary contractual obligations and follow the regulatory parameters as mandated by the tenders awarded to us across all locations.

By ensuring the highest possible levels of service and efficiency, processes at our Visa Application Centres are also highly regulated and approved by the respective client mission based on their respective mandates.

Our role in the Department of Home Affairs, South Africa contract is limited to scheduling appointments, acceptance of applications, enrolling biometrics, acceptance of fees, submission of applications to the Department of Home Affairs and returning the outcomes to the applicant/s.

The adjudication of the permit applications is done by the Department of Home Affairs. VFS Global has no role in the decision-making process, availability of appointment slots nor the duration of the application processing encountered by applicants.

The DHA contract was awarded through a competitive tendering process in which VFS Global had participated along with other companies. There is no contract awarded by DHA for e-visa services. At present, only a pilot project is being conducted for Nigerian nationals seeking a South Africa visa online.

Headquartered in Zurich/Switzerland, VFS Global is majority-owned by funds managed by Blackstone, the world’s largest alternative asset manager. The Swiss-based Kuoni and Hugentobler Foundation and EQT, a global investment organisation, headquartered in Stockholm/Sweden, hold minority stakes in VFS Global.


Comments - Please in order to comment.

  • Allen Masomere says:

    You know a country is in decline when foreigners are blamed for everything that’s going wrong. Immigration is a powerful force for human and economic development. Period. Let all our people go!

    • If all foreigners can leave South Africa today, is all your problems that you blame on immigrants be over,? The answer is No, these guys indirectly contribute to this economy one way or the other. Government must find better solutions to their advantage instead of wasting money fighting movement of people which they can never win

  • Marion Botma says:

    Evidence also shows that undocumented immigrants add to the burden on South Africa’s health sector and social services. They do not pay income tax yet they expect their children to be able to access our schools. No. I do not see the advantage to me and my country of having migrants flooding into South Africa

    • That is true but what is the government doing about it? It’s possible for the government to have a system in place for these immigrants by introducing fees paying system for immigrants who want to use the government facilities, I know many immigrants that prefer to use private hospitals instead, the same can be done to tax payments if immigrants are documented and tax, also they can pay school fees as well because most immigrants understand school fees payments in their various countries.

  • All stringent approaches to counter economic migration have never yield any fruits rather waste of money that supposedly be directed to other pressing economic issues within our country.
    The best immigration approach that I think is good enough is that of Dubai, they commercialized immigration to the advantage of their country by selling visas to people who want to come and work or visit their country at a profitable fees with conditions such that if one becomes overstayed they can be charged or imprisoned. The money Dubai makes from immigration is use to support its citizens and for country’s development. SA can use this approach or modify it to their advantage because no country in the world has ever win the battle over immigration. Immigration is humanly by nature even animals migrate for safety and food

  • David Walker says:

    The population of the countries to the north of us is exploding. The DRC is projected by the UN to add another 100 million to their population in about 20 years. Tanzania is expected to have 40 million more people in the same time. We simply cannot absorb these kinds of numbers while we can’t even address the basic needs of our own people. So what do we do?

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