The fighting erupted on Saturday between army units loyal to General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, head of Sudan’s transitional governing Sovereign Council, and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as Hemedti, who is deputy head of the council.
It was the first such outbreak since both joined forces to oust veteran Islamist autocrat Omar Hassan al-Bashir in 2019 and was sparked by a disagreement over the integration of the RSF into the military as part of a transition towards civilian rule.
Burhan and Hemedti agreed a three-hour humanitarian pause from 4pm to 7pm local time (14:00 GMT-17:00 GMT) on Sunday proposed by the United Nations, the UN mission in Sudan said, with both sides confirming this in separate statements.
Doctors’ unions had said earlier it was difficult for medics and the sick to get to and from hospitals and called on the army and RSF to provide safe passage.
But while firing in central Khartoum initially appeared to subside, heavy bombardments soon resumed, a Reuters witness said. As night fell after the expiry of the pause pact, residents reported the boom of artillery and roar of warplanes in the Kafouri district of Bahri, which has an RSF base, across the Nile river from the capital Khartoum.
“The ceasefire and opening of safe pathways announced by Unitams (UN mission) was not executed and neither the International Committee of the Red Cross nor the Sudanese Red Crescent carried out evacuations,” said Ghazi Elrayah, a humanitarian activist working on evacuating people stranded in several hospitals and other buildings by the fighting.
The United States, China, Russia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UN Security Council, European Union and African Union have appealed for a quick end to the hostilities that threaten to worsen instability in an already volatile wider region.
Efforts by neighbours and regional bodies to end the violence intensified on Sunday. Egypt offered to mediate, and regional African bloc Intergovernmental Authority on Development plans to send the presidents of Kenya, South Sudan and Djibouti as soon as possible to reconcile Sudanese groups in conflict, Kenyan President William Ruto’s office said on Twitter.
The eruption of fighting over the weekend followed rising tensions over the RSF’s integration into the military. Discord over the timetable for that has delayed the signing of an internationally-backed agreement with political parties on a transition to democracy after a 2021 military coup.
Witnesses and residents told Reuters that the army had carried out air strikes on RSF barracks and bases, including in Omdurman across the Nile river from Khartoum, and managed to destroy most of their facilities.
They said the army had also wrested back control over much of Khartoum’s presidential palace from the RSF after both sides claimed to control it and other key installations in Khartoum, where heavy artillery and gun battles raged into Sunday.
RSF members remained inside Khartoum international airport besieged by the army but it was holding back from striking them to avoid wreaking major damage, witnesses said.
“The hour of victory is near,” the army said in a statement on Sunday. “We will have good news for our patient and proud people soon, God willing.”
But a major problem, witnesses and residents said, was posed by thousands of heavily armed RSF members deployed inside neighbourhoods of Khartoum and other cities, with no authority able to control them.
“We’re scared, we haven’t slept for 24 hours because of the noise and the house shaking. We’re worried about running out of water and food, and medicine for my diabetic father,” Huda, a young resident in southern Khartoum told Reuters.
“There’s so much false information and everyone is lying. We don’t know when this will end, how it will end,” she added.
A protracted confrontation could plunge Sudan into widespread conflict as it struggles with economic breakdown and tribal violence, derailing efforts to move towards elections.
Energy-rich powers Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have sought to shape events in Sudan, seeing the transition away from toppled strongman Bashir’s rule as a way to roll back Islamist influence and improve stability in the region.
They have also pursued investments in sectors including agriculture, where Sudan holds vast potential, and ports on Sudan’s Red Sea coast.
The Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors reported at least 56 civilians had been killed and 595 people including combatants had been wounded since the fighting erupted.
Scores of military personnel were killed, the doctors’ committee said, without giving a specific number due to a lack of first-hand information from hospitals.
The UN World Food Programme (WFP) said it had temporarily halted all operations in hunger-stricken areas of Sudan after three Sudanese employees were killed during fighting in North Darfur and a WFP plane was hit during a gun battle at Khartoum airport.
“I … am extremely appalled by reports of projectiles hitting U.N. and other humanitarian premises, as well as reports of looting of UN and other humanitarian premises in several locations in Darfur,” Volker Perthes, UN special envoy for Sudan and head of its country mission, said in a statement.
Saudi Foreign Minister Faisal bin Farhan bin Al-Saud had separate phone calls with Burhan and Hemedti and called for an end to military escalation, Saudi state media said on Sunday. The minister affirmed Riyadh’s call for calm.
In a speech to an Arab League meeting on the crisis on Sunday, Sudan said the Sudanese should be allowed to reach a settlement internally without foreign interference.
The armed forces said it would not negotiate with the RSF unless the force dissolved. The army told soldiers seconded to the RSF to report to nearby army units, which could deplete RSF ranks if they obey.
RSF leader Hemedti, deputy head of state, called military chief Burhan a “criminal” and a “liar”.
Sudan’s MTN telecommunications company blocked internet services on the orders of the government telecommunications regulator, two company officials told Reuters.
State television cut its transmission on Sunday afternoon, a move employees said was aimed at preventing the broadcast of propaganda by the RSF after its forces entered the main state broadcaster building in Omdurman and used radio networks to air pro-RSF programming.
(Reporting by Khalid Abdelaziz and Nafisa Eltahir.)