First published by International Crisis Group
When world leaders gather in New York on 19 September for summit meetings hosted by the UN and the US to tackle the global refugee crisis, they must redouble their efforts to resolve those conflicts driving the global exodus and to prevent new conflicts before the emergency is compounded. Additionally, leaders should commit to resettle at least 10% of the world’s refugees annually, share responsibilities more equitably, increase support for frontline states facing the greatest challenges, and respect fully the rights of refugees.
The number of refugees and internally displaced now stands at more than 65-million, the largest figure ever recorded. According to the UN Refugee Agency, more than half of the world’s refugees come from just three countries ravaged by conflict – Syria, Afghanistan and Somalia (these figures do not include the 5.2-million Palestinians registered by the UN Relief and Works Agency). For frontline states such as Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo, the pressures caused by massive influxes of people can be overwhelming. The cost to future generations is even more alarming: half of all refugees in 2015 were children.
The failure to respond to the refugee crisis risks further conflict, triggering further refugee flows.
Crisis Group presents below a summary of decades of research on conflict and political instability in the Top Ten Source Countries of Refugees, based on data compiled by the UN Refugee Agency. In each case we have summed up Crisis Group’s recommendations for action to resolve these crises and improve the lives of their victims.
Some 12-million Syrians have been uprooted by the conflict since 2011 – including 4.9-million registered refugees, 6.6-million internally displaced people and nearly 250,000 asylum-seekers. The total is more than half the pre-war population, by some estimates. The exodus is likely to continue so long as the war grinds on, with dim prospects for a diplomatic solution or decisive military victory by either side. The regime of President Bashar al-Assad has so far shown little interest in compromise, and has used collective punishment against civilians in opposition areas as a pillar of its strategy. The opposition is divided between non-jihadist and jihadist elements, and is supported by an array of external powers with competing interests. The conflict threatens to further draw in the region as forces on both sides of the Syria-Turkey border have escalated hostilities. Although Russia and the U.S. recently announced a new agreement to support a ceasefire in Syria, the deal is fraught with difficulties.
Despite the geopolitical mess, immediate steps can be taken to tackle the refugee crisis: world leaders should push for and facilitate the negotiation of a nationwide cessation of hostilities, or put in place other measures that would better protect Syrian civilians and civilian objects, such as hospitals, schools and markets; increase support for the large numbers of displaced people inside Syria and those in front-line states such as Turkey,Lebanon and Jordan; and uphold international law and standards governing the treatment of refugees everywhere.
More than four decades of war and unresolved conflict in Afghanistan have displaced millions, with the vast majority living in Pakistan and Iran in often precarious circumstances. In addition to the 2.7-million Afghan refugees registered by UNHCR, another 3-million undocumented Afghans are estimated to be living in the region. Ongoing violence is a major push factor. Today, the Taliban is expanding, controlling more territory than before; militants, particularly the Haqqani network, are responsible for successive attacks in major cities, including Kabul; and the Islamic State has established a presence in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar.
Civilians face dangers from militant groups, as well as from the Afghan security forces meant to protect them. They often fare no better in countries where they sought sanctuary. In early September, the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) warned of a looming humanitarian crisis as thousands of Afghan refugees fled from Pakistan amid increased incidents of violence, arbitrary arrest, detention and harassment. Since 2014, a growing number of Afghans have undertaken the perilous journey across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe. The EU plans to deport many of them back to Afghanistan, where they are likely to face security threats as well as acute financial hardships amid a shrinking war economy. As the security situation deteriorates, the number of internally displaced refugees is likely to grow, increasing the burden on a state that is ill-equipped to support them.
Decades of almost continuous conflict have made Somalia the third largest source country of refugees. Some 1.12-million Somalis have sought sanctuary abroad, and just as many have been displaced inside the country. Ongoing attacks by the Islamist insurgency Al-Shabaab make them reluctant to return to their homes. Though Al-Shabaab has suffered setbacks in recent months, including territorial losses and the killing of high-ranking commanders, it has proved highly resilient and could make a comeback. Under pressure in Somalia, the group has launched attacks in Kenya, where it has exploited local grievances and communal tensions to recruit new followers. In May, the Kenyan government pledged to close Dadaab refugee camp, which shelters mostly Somalis, due to security concerns. In July, UNHCR announced a plan to reduce the population of Dadaab – the world’s largest refugee camp – from 343,043 to 150,000 by the end of 2016. The issue has become a highly sensitive national and international concern in the run-up to Kenya’s elections in 2017. Navigating this dilemma – pitting humanitarian need against security risks – requires pragmatic and inclusive political approaches in both source and host countries.
The world’s newest nation has swiftly become a leading source of refugees. There were 778,700 refugees at the end of 2015, and that number could pass the 1 million mark this year if current trends continue. The majority of refugees have fled to Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan and Uganda. More than1.6 million people are internally displaced. The UN is sheltering around 200,000 people at six sites across the country designated for the Protection of Civilians, although these sites have repeatedly come under direct attack. International agencies report that the country is facing a humanitarian crisis, including an unprecedented level of food insecurity. Though the main warring parties signed a peace deal in 2015, implementing the agreement has proved highly contentious. As of September 2016, South Sudan stood at a risky impasse. Negotiations with the government over the deployment of a new regional protection force, operating under the UN Mission in South Sudan, appear likely to occupy key stakeholders at the expense of deeper political engagement. Greater co-ordination between regional and international actors is needed to prevent a return to more widespread violence and new waves of refugees.
The conflict in South Sudan has drawn attention away from its northern neighbour, but Sudan remains the fifth-largest source country for refugees in the world. Over 620,000 Sudanese had fled the country by the end of 2015, most living in Chad and South Sudan. Keeping them away is a regime in survival mode, as yet unwilling to make the compromises needed to end internal conflicts, especially those in Darfur and the Two Areas, South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. To help end the fighting, the international community should encourage a renewed commitment by the Sudanese government, rebel groups and opposition political parties to the African Union mediated peace process on Darfur and the Two Areas. Improved relationsbetween Sudan and South Sudan, which remain closely tied due to economic and security arrangements across their shared border, will also help. With humanitarian actors facing restricted access to conflict areas, assessing the scale of internal displacement remains a major challenge, but as of December 2015, an estimated 3.2-million people had been uprooted from their homes inside the country.
At the end of 2015, there were over 540,000 Congolese refugees, and another 1.6-million internally displaced. Most of these people fled their homes during the civil wars that raged in Congo between 1996 and 2002, but remain fearful to return or unable to reclaim their land and property. Recent violence perpetrated by increasingly fragmentedarmed groups in the east, operations by the army andchronic disputes over land and leadership have triggered new waves of displacement. Complicating matters, Congo is also a leading host of refugees – with more than 380,000 refugees who fled crises in Burundi, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Rwanda.
Serious tensions in the resource-rich region of Katanga – including between local ethnic groups, migrants and the internally displaced, whose numbers increased from 50,000 to 500,000 between 2011 and 2014 – may be the precursor of a violent escalation in the run-up to national elections due in November. President Joseph Kabila’s determination to cling to power beyond his constitutionally-mandated second term is pushing Congo to the brink of disaster. The legacy of past conflict and the current political crisis present grave challenges for the world’s largest peacekeeping mission, the UN Organisation Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). Without more concerted international political engagement, the country could descend again into civil war, fuelling further cycles of suffering and displacement.
Surges of violence in the Central African Republic have driven more than 470,000 refugees out of the country, mostly to Cameroon, Chad and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Another 421,000 people have been internally displaced. Taken together, about one fifth of the country’s population has been uprooted. Criminality and intercommunal tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims are very high. The permanent relocation of Muslims from the west, fleeing attacks by anti-balaka fighters, to cities in the east, where ex-Seleka hold sway, has changed the demographic balance. The crisis has created ethnic or religious borders within some cities and transformed formerly mixed neighbourhoods into religiously-homogeneous ones. The inauguration this March of President Faustin-Archange Touadéra marked the end of an arduous three-year political transition, however the new democratic regime is under threat from armed groups and faces a host of challenges. The government and international community must focus their efforts on four urgent priorities: advancing reconciliation, developing a strategy to help refugees return home, fighting impunity and making progress toward the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of militia members.
Decades of conflict and political repression in Myanmar have left 451,800 people living as refugees or in refugee-like situations, mostly in Thailand and Bangladesh. Several hundreds of thousands more are internally displaced, with many living in appalling conditions in camps where they have very little access to protection or government services. Even larger numbers have left Myanmar to join the migrant labour pool, particularly in Thailand; many are economic migrants, but a significant number fled conflict and repression. Myanmar’s new government led by Aung San Suu Kyi benefits from a powerful electoral mandate and popular legitimacy, but still faces huge challenges. Priorities include delivering on the promise of the 2015 Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement to find a negotiated political solution to the six-decade civil war with the country’s many armed groups, and creating a sustainable peace on the ground. The government must also address the plight of the Rohingya and other Muslim communities in Rakhine state amid hostility from Buddhist nationalists, which forced the internal displacement of some 145,000 people when intercommunal violence erupted in 2012-13. International support will remain vital insustaining the peace process, promoting the conditions for safe return in north-east and south-east Myanmar and in Rakhine state, and providing the government with financial and technical assistance.
By the end of 2015, there were an estimated 411,300 registered refugees from Eritrea – one slice of a wider exodus of people leaving their homeland. During the first half of 2016, Eritreans making the dangerous journey across the Mediterranean comprised the largest group of arrivals in Italy. This mass migration is driven by repression and abuses committed by the authoritarian government of President Isaias Afwerki, rejection of compulsory military service, and widespread poverty. While recent geopolitical shifts have seen an easing of the country’s economic isolation and could lead to better prospects at home, a June 2016 flare-up in the long-running border dispute with Ethiopia points to the risk of a new round of conflict. To ensure stability and curb the exodus, the government needs to resolve its border issues and pursue domestic reforms, especially by opening up political space and intensifying engagement with international partners.
Photo: Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir (R) (No 5 spot) and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad (No 1 spot) (L) attend the opening session of Arab League of the heads-of-state Summit at the Palais des Nations outside Algiers, Algeria on Tuesday 22 March 2005. Both countries have been accused by the United States of sponsoring terrorism. EPA/MIKE NELSON
In other news...
South Africa is in a very real battle. A political fight where terms such as truth and democracy can seem more of a suggestion as opposed to a necessity.
On one side of the battle are those openly willing to undermine the sovereignty of a democratic society, completely disregarding the weight and power of the oaths declared when they took office. If their mission was to decrease society’s trust in government - mission accomplished.
And on the other side are those who believe in the ethos of a country whose constitution was once declared the most progressive in the world. The hope that truth, justice and accountability in politics, business and society is not simply fairy tale dust sprinkled in great electoral speeches; but rather a cause that needs to be intentionally acted upon every day.
However, it would be an offensive oversight not to acknowledge that right there on the front lines, alongside whistleblowers and civil society, stand the journalists. Armed with only their determination to inform society and defend the truth, caught in the crossfire of shots fired from both sides.
If you believe in supporting the cause and the work of Daily Maverick then take your position on the battleground and sign up to Maverick Insider today.
For whatever amount you choose, you can support Daily Maverick and it only takes a minute.
"You at this time can only be destroyed by yourselves from within and not from without. You have reached the point where the victory is to be won from within and can only be lost from within." ~ Marcus Garvey